How Female Fertility is Evaluated: Dr. Sumita Sofat

How Female Fertility is Evaluated


While many may suggest a physical exam (test) but it is the hormonal testing and a vaginal ultrasound which offers a complete evaluation of fertility of the woman. Sometimes these tests might be covered under insurance or offered at a low cost. Test tube baby Centre in Punjab specifies what these tests are all about and what they hold for us.

Vaginal Ultrasound

A vaginal ultrasound is a test that evaluates the reproductive organs right from the ovaries to the cervix, covering the fallopian tubes and uterus in between. The doctor will measure the uterus and find out if any abnormalities exist within it. It is specifically useful in finding out the thickness of the uterine lining, presence of polyps, or fibroids. The status of the fallopian tubes is checked through a sonogram with a 3D ultrasound. The test tells us whether the tubes are open or closed.

There are some other tests which women take to evaluate their fertility-

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH): AMH is a test that indicates the egg supply. This blood test may be carried out on any day of the month. If the AMH levels are normal, it is an indication of strong egg supply. Low AMH indicates a low egg supply. High AMH levels may indicate Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS).

“Day 3” Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): This blood test is used to measures the ovarian function of the woman. FSH is a hormone released from the brain which stimulates the ovary to grow eggs. High FSH levels are recorded when the egg supply is low. This blood test is usually performed between the 2nd and the 4th day of the menstrual cycle, hence the name. A high FSH level indicates a low egg supply. It may also indicate the onset of menopause. A low FSH may indicate a lack of ovulation and the condition of amenorrhea in which the woman has no periods.

Estradiol: Estradiol is a hormone that helps in validating the FSH level. This test is performed between days 2 and 4 of the menstrual cycle.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH): This test indicates whether the ovulation is properly occurring properly or not. A high LH indicates a normal ovulation pattern. Testing for this hormone during your cycle may evaluate whether this hormone is present to trigger ovulation.

Further tests may be required depending on the results of the above tests.

Genetic Testing: This test is recommended if either or both the parents are the carrier of genetic disease. It can be done on a blood sample or saliva. If genetic abnormalities are found, the patients may so a step further by opting for genetic testing (PGT-A or PGT-M) of embryos. This step will help in the prevention of genetic issues from being passed to the embryo.